South Sudan has one the highest Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) of 84 per 1000 live births and Under-five Mortality Rate (UMR) of 106 per 1000 live births. These high mortalities could easily be averted by immunization however only 13.8% of children under 1 year reported to have been vaccinated against DTP-3.
This failure is greatly attributed to limited access to immunization service due to poor supply and cold chain system, weak community awareness and participation as well as the conflict. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children and the use of antibiotics in under-5s with suspected pneumonia is a key intervention however only one out of five mothers can recognize the two danger signs of pneumonia and only 35.1% of children with suspected pneumonia are taken to an appropriate healthcare provider or health facility. Other major causes of infant and under-five morbidity and mortality are malaria pneumonia, diarrhoeal diseases, and malnutrition. Hunger is another challenge.